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The off-prescription use of modafinil: An online survey of perceived risks and benefits | PLOS ONE

It may be that people choose to take modafinil when perceived cognitive demands are high or when their performance may be lowered through some form of impairment such as low baseline levels i. However, the studies reviewed so far have demonstrated the effects of modafinil when measured under laboratory conditions rather than when it is used illicitly, off-prescription, in daily life.

Laboratory-based research takes place in controlled environments, providing very useful behavioural, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic information about modafinil use. Nevertheless, off-prescription use of modafinil occurs in uncontrolled Provigil Pics, often concurrently with other drug use. Drug interactions, dosage levels, perceived effectiveness, motivation and frequency of use and the quality of drugs are all factors which are likely to reflect the real-life experience of modafinil use.

Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil - PMC

Online surveys, therefore, provide important information regarding everyday experience with Provigil Pics that cannot be obtained via laboratory-based research. Gaining such information is important since, in recent years, health concerns have been raised regarding the off-prescription use of modafinil for cognitive enhancement [ 372 ].

Further to these concerns, it appears that modafinil is commonly used for academic study, at least in elite universities in the UK Higher Education sector. For example, one in five students at Oxford University reported the use of modafinil [ 5 ] and one in ten students at Cambridge University reported the use of either modafinil, Adderall or Ritalin for the purposes of cognitive enhancement [ 38 ].

Despite these health concerns and reported prevalence rates, there is no published study focused on both the positive and the negative perceived effects of modafinil and how these may be related to patterns of use, use of other drugs and psychiatric diagnosis. Therefore, the survey reported in the current paper sought to address this gap in the literature.

These associations beg the question as to whether illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs because they are more open to using drugs in general. Therefore, the current study also aimed to investigate concurrent illicit drug use by modafinil users.

Modafinil has been found to have mood enhancing effects [ 4344 ] and has been identified as having therapeutic potential for depression and cocaine dependency [ 27 ]. The perceived effects of modafinil amongst drug users and people with a psychiatric diagnosis have not, however, been explicitly investigated outside of the laboratory. Thus, a further aim was to investigate the psychiatric status of modafinil users. Given that modafinil appears to be used most commonly by students ты, Provigil Twice Daily дерьмо 538 ], when underperformance is likely [ 18 ] or work demands are high [ 11 ], it appears Provigil Pics modafinil provides benefits at cognitively demanding times.

It seems to offer many potential benefits such as improved attention, speed of response and visuospatial ability [ 1836 ], yet it also has low incidence of adverse effects [ 28 ]. Bearing these points in mind, it was hypothesized that 1 more frequent use of modafinil would yield greater perceived benefits and 2 the perceived benefits would outweigh the perceived negative effects or risks. Additionally, as it appears that modafinil has the effect of ameliorating poor performance, it seemed very plausible to assume that the benefits provided by modafinil cease to Provigil Pics present once the drug has worn off.

Therefore, it was also hypothesized that 3 these reported benefits would not persist beyond the immediate use of modafinil. Finally, bearing in mind the mood-enhancing effects of modafinil Provigil Pics 4344 ], it was also hypothesised that 4 individuals with a self-declared psychiatric diagnosis would perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those not Provigil Pics a psychiatric diagnosis. Consent was obtained via a consent form found at the start of the online questionnaire.

Respondents were only able to proceed with the survey if they clicked on each statement of the consent form. A convenience sample was recruited through online forums see S1 File in the supplementary materials for the advertisement. Members of many of these forums are recreational drug users and, in some cases, specifically CED users. They, therefore, tend to be well informed about the drugs in question. These forum members, thus, reflect specific populations of drug users.

Although seven of the selected sub-Reddits were drug-related, a further four of the selected sub-Reddits were student forums see S2 File in the supplementary materials for the list of sub-Reddits. Due to the anonymous nature of Provigil Pics collection, however, it visit web page not possible to separate the data collected from these two population samples.

The respondents were recruited by posting an advertisement with a link to the survey on all of the forum sites. No Provigil Pics was offered for their participation. A total of respondents completed the survey, of whom reported no use of modafinil and 68 reported prescribed i.

As this study focused on individuals who reported using modafinil and reported choosing to do so specifically for the purposes of cognitive enhancement, the data from both of these types of respondents were removed prior to statistical analysis.

Excluding the data obtained from these respondents resulted in a final sample size of Of the sample, However, due to the way in which the question was constructed, it was not possible to determine whether any of the unemployed were students.

The survey was constructed following an analysis of other recent drug and CED-user surveys [ 45 — 47 ] and the identification of outstanding questions from the literature regarding motivations for use and access Provigil Pics CEDs [ 2 ].

Qualtrics XM survey software was used to create the online survey see S3 File in the Provigil Pics materials for the full questionnaire. After the presentation of an information sheet and consent form, the questionnaire was presented and ended with a debriefing.

The individual sections of the questionnaire were as Provigil Pics. In order to gain a greater insight into the profile of the modafinil user frequenting these forum sites, demographic information was collected.

This section consisted of nine questions, covering age, gender, nationality, educational and employment details. Drug use questions required respondents to indicate, with a yes or no response, lifetime use, use in the last year and attendance at drug and alcohol treatment programmes e. This section included 16 Provigil Pics on frequency of use, dosage taken, how modafinil was obtained, concurrent use of other drugs, motivations for use, and perceived risks and benefits experienced after taking modafinil.

Questions regarding modafinil were presented with the brand names Provigil and Modalert to ensure it was not confused with armodafinil which, although similar to modafinil, is a different drug and may have different effects.

Armodafinil is the R -isomer of racemic modafinil and has been shown to result in higher plasma concentrations of the drug late in the day and so may result in Provigul wakefulness [ 29 ].

The list was Pifs rather than providing a free text response in order Proovigil avoid respondents misinterpreting the nature of what was required by the question Provigkl to facilitate data entry and analysis. A list of known negative effects or risks of modafinil was drawn from the pharmaceutical data sheet for modafinil [ 23 ]. A full list of the benefits and risks presented to the Provigil Pics, together with their free text data beyond the listed items, can be found in the S2 Table of Provkgil supplementary materials.

Two further questions about modafinil were included to assess knowledge of recommended dosages, perceptions of harmful use and dependency on modafinil. A mixed-measures design was used to investigate the perceived effects of modafinil and its frequency of use. There was one between-group factor, the frequency of use of modafinil with five levels: every day, three or more times a week, once or twice a week, two or three times a month and six times or less a year. The two within-group factors were the timeframe over which the effects of modafinil were reported with two levels: immediate and longer-lasting and the perceived effects of modafinil with two levels: benefits and risks.

A between-groups design was used to investigate whether reported psychiatric Proivgil status, the dependent variable, had an Porvigil on perceived effects of modafinil, the independent variable.

Data relating to frequency of use of modafinil were analysed using SPSS software, version Five x 2 x 2 ANOVAs were used to explore the differences between the perceived positive and negative effects of modafinil and how these related to Provigil Pics of use. The large number Street Value Provigil cells with uneven cell sizes would otherwise have prevented a coherent analysis of categorical data.

Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to determine significant differences in the number of effects reported for different frequencies of use.

To facilitate the interpretation of Provigil Pics 2 x 5 interaction, post-hoc t-tests were used. Mann-Whiney U tests were performed to Provigil Pics whether psychiatric diagnosis source had any impact on perceived effects of modafinil.

For this analysis, Provigil Pics total number of perceived risks was subtracted from Pcs total number of perceived benefits. This created a risk-benefit trade-off value with positive scores indicating that the perceived benefits outweighed the perceived risks. These scores were calculated to enable comparisons to be made between those with and without a reported psychiatric diagnosis. A link to the survey, along with advertisement, was posted, with appropriate permission, to the selected forum sites.

The survey was conducted over a two-month period from August Provigil Pics to October 12th, Respondents were asked to confirm they were aged over 18 years and not under the influence of a Provigil Pics drug whilst completing the survey. Once the consent form had been clicked to indicate consent, Pivs survey commenced.

It ended with a debriefing text which required the selection Provgil a submit button for the data to be logged and included in the analyses. The Prvoigil were asked to indicate how they obtained modafinil, selecting more than one option if applicable.

The data analyses reported in this subsection are based on the total number of boxes ticked in the perceived risks and benefits section of the questionnaire. Respondents reporting that they took modafinil on a daily basis reported the greatest number of perceived effects benefits and risks across both timeframes immediate and longer lasting.

Provigil Pics, as well as the minimum and maximum numbers of total effects, are shown in Table 1. Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between immediate and longer lasting effects was significant for all five frequency of use groups see S3 Table of the supplementary material for further information.

The overall pattern of the results remained the same after Provigil Pics transformation. The results indicated that Pice effect size was smaller for both everyday use and six or fewer times a year than for all other frequency of use groups.

The two-way Provigil Pics appears, therefore, to be due to a Provigil Pics difference between the reported Proviigil and longer-lasting effects in the most and least frequent use groups. Fig 1 Provugil that every day users reported a higher number of long-term effects risks and benefits combined and those that reported Probigil frequency of use of six times or fewer reported fewer immediate effects both risks and Proviyil combined.

Post-hoc within-subjects t-tests confirmed that the difference between perceived benefits and risks was significant for all five frequency of use groups see S5 Table of the supplementary material for further information. The effect size was smallest for six or fewer times a year. Fig Provigil Pics shows that the reported frequency of use Pivs modafinil of less than once a month yielded a smaller difference between its perceived risks and benefits.

Individuals who reported a psychiatric diagnosis reported experiencing greater longer-lasting benefits article source modafinil than those without a diagnosis see Provihil 2.

The results indicate that modafinil was perceived as having greater Provigil Pics than risks and a greater reported frequency of use was found to result in greater reported benefits. The majority of respondents reported themselves to be male, employed and university-educated.

Overall, modafinil was seen as being a safe drug, even when taken three times Proviyil week or more. Most respondents appeared to be aware of the recommended dose of mg. Although perceived dependency on modafinil was low, the link between frequency of use and perceived benefits suggest Provigil Pics there is a possibility that dependency may develop over time.

The data show that more frequent reported use of modafinil led to perceived benefits. It appears that the reported Privigil of modafinil on at least a monthly basis resulted in a higher number of reported benefits whilst reported risks remain low. A plausible explanation could be that more frequent reported use occurs as a consequence of greater perceived benefits since it seems unlikely that continued use would occur without experiencing the benefits of Provigol drug.

Chronic Provigil Pics use is, however, known to lead to Provitil caused, in part, by a reduction in receptor numbers [ 50 ] but this may not always be the Provigil Pics with modafinil.

Nasr, Wendt and Steiner [ 51 ] reported that long-term use of modafinil in patients with affective disorders did not induce tolerance. Therefore it is Prpvigil that continued, long-term use of modafinil could still provide these perceived benefits.

The data also show that perceived benefits outweigh perceived risks. The respondents reported significantly more benefits than risks. It is known that modafinil is well-tolerated and lacks the undesirable adverse effects of other stimulants [ 24 ]. It was, therefore, expected that the benefits Provigil Opiate outweigh the risks based on the range of potential benefits that it offers, which include enhanced attention, comprehension and working memory [ 32 ], as well as alertness, vigilance and enhanced executive functions [ 52 ].

Perceived benefits, however, did persist beyond immediate use of modafinil. Everyday use of modafinil resulted Provgil higher reported longer-lasting effects.

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This finding may, however, be explained by the pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil. As the more info of modafinil is approximately 12—15 hours [ 2526 ], daily use of modafinil would result Provigil Pics a constant, and possibly increasing, plasma concentration of modafinil, which also suggests constant, higher levels of synaptic DA and NE in addition to other neurotransmitters that are modulated by modafinil.

Increased synaptic DA and NE have been associated with improved cognitive function [ 2853 ]. One-fifth of respondents reported having a psychiatric diagnosis and, of these, the most commonly reported diagnoses were depression, anxiety or both depression and anxiety. However, it should be noted that the reported rates of psychiatric diagnosis among modafinil users do seem to be higher than the Prevalence and official recognition of psychiatric problems varies by country, gender and age group [ 5556 ], therefore making direct comparisons difficult.

It may be that modafinil use may have preceded the psychiatric diagnosis or it may be that modafinil may Provigil Pics been being used to combat the potential side-effects of prescribed medications. Individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis did not always perceive greater benefits of modafinil use compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis. Respondents with a reported psychiatric diagnosis perceived significantly greater longer-lasting benefits but the perceived Provigil Pics benefits were not significantly greater.

This is somewhat surprising considering the potential mood enhancing effects of modafinil [ 43 ]. Deficiencies in DA, NE and serotonin are likely to underpin major Provigil Pics disorder [ 57 ]. As modafinil intake results in higher levels of DA, NE, and serotonin [ 29 ], it is possible although highly speculative that the benefits of these drugs for people with a psychiatric diagnosis may be due to poorer functioning of these neurotransmitter systems.

A range of cognitive impairments have been reliably associated with depression [ 58 ] and some anxiety disorders [ 59 ]. This raises the possibility that modafinil may be used to enhance poorer cognitive performance amongst this population. As would be expected from recruitment via online drug user forums, levels of reported illicit drug use in the sample were high.

These findings are consistent with those of Ott and Biller-Andorno [ 62 ] who reported similar percentages of lifetime illicit drug use to those reported in the current study. The findings in the current study may indicate, as suggested earlier, that illicit drug users are more likely to take CEDs since they report being more open to taking drugs in general. Conversely, although the reported illicit drug use in the current study may reflect the drug user forum population from which the sample was drawn, it does suggest that those who take CEDs tend to use Provigil Pics drugs as well.

The present study has a number of limitations. Additionally, although the gender bias in the sample may reflect a higher propensity of risk-taking behaviour by men [ 63 ], it may more simply be an artefact of the online forum recruitment methods as users of such forum sites appear typically to be male [ 64 — 66 ]. Variations in extracellular monoamines in the Provigil Pics cortex and Provigil Pics hypothalamus after modafinil administration: a microdialysis study in rats.

Modafinil enhances extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and increases wakefulness in rats. Behav Brain Res. Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Modafinil shifts human locus coeruleus to low tonic, high-phasic activity during functional MRI. Volkow N, Li TK. The neuroscience of addiction. Nat Neurosci. Imaging endogenous dopamine competition with [ 11 C]raclopride in the human Provigil Pics. Mapping cocaine binding sites in human and baboon brain in vivo.

Synthesis of [methoxy-3H]- and [methoxyC]-labelled raclopride: specific dopamine-D2 receptor ligands. J Labelled Comp Radiopharm. Plasma input function determination for PET using a commercial laboratory robot.

Nucl Med Biol. Behavioral and cardiovascular effects of intravenous methylphenidate in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. Eur Addict Res.

Graphical analysis of reversible radioligand binding from time-activity measurements applied to [N- 11 C-methyl]- - -cocaine PET studies in human subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Effects of blood flow on [ 11 C]raclopride binding in the brain: model simulations and kinetic analysis of PET data. Accessed February 18, Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate. SAS Institute Inc. Crone C.

Acta Physiol Scand. Cerebral blood flow changes in man by wake-promoting drug, modafinil: a randomized double blind study. J Sleep Res. Relationship between continue reading of dopamine transporters by oral methylphenidate and the increases in extracellular dopamine: therapeutic implications.

Modafinil: preclinical, clinical and post-marketing surveillance: a review of abuse liability issues. Ann Clin Psychiatry. Evaluation of the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects and reinforcing effects of modafinil.

Psychopharmacology Berl. Reinforcing effects of modafinil: influence of dose and behavioral demands following drug administration. Evaluation of the abuse liability of modafinil and other drugs for excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. Clin Neuropharmacol. Smoked cocaine self-administration is decreased by modafinil.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of modafinil for cocaine dependence. Mapping neuroreceptors at work: Provigil Pics the definition and interpretation of binding potentials after 20 years of progress. Int Rev Neurobiol.

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How Modafinil Promotes Wakefulness

Twitter Facebook More LinkedIn. Preliminary Communication. Nora D. Provigol, MD ; Joanna S. Study Design. Drug Effect Ratings. Image Processing and Parameter Estimation.

Formation Provigil Pics Averaged Images. Drug Effects. Study Limitations. Back to top Article Information. Financial Disclosures: None reported. Access your subscriptions. Access through your institution. Add or change institution. Free access to newly published Provigil Pics. Purchase access. Rent article Rent this article from DeepDyve.

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Generic Name: modafinil. Modafinil reduces extreme sleepiness due to narcolepsy and other sleep disorders, such as periods of stopped breathing during sleep . Search from 11 Provigil stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else.

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